Immunopathological similarities between COVID-19 and influenza

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Fig. 1. Immunopathological similarities between influenza and COVID-19. The similarities between the two viruses are shown. Both infections eventually lead to pathological events and disorders such as fever, inflammation, lymphopenia, coagulation, DIC, gastrointestinal disorders, increased APPs, ARDS, multi-organ failure, and death. However, the severity of these symptoms can vary between the two infectious diseases. (SARS-CoV-2; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, S; spike, N; nucleoprotein, M; membrane, E; envelope), (Influenza, N; neuraminidase, H; hemagglutinin, M; membrane, E; envelope, NP; nucleoprotein), ss RNA; single strain RNA, ACE2; angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, DC-SIGN; dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin, APPs; acute phase proteins, ARDS; acute respiratory distress syndrome, DIC; disseminated intravascular coagulation.

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Covid-19 and influenza viruses have some common characteristics as discussed in this paper.

  1. Some clinical and laboratory findings are similar in both influenza and SARS-CoV-2 infections.
  2. COVID-19 may be associated with other respiratory infectious diseases.
  3. Vaccination against influenza at a suitable time is necessary to prevent co-infection.